In late December 1830, the state passed another law prohibiting white men from entering Indian country after March 1, 1831, without a license from the state. Even though there was significant opposition by many Christian missionaries, and others including future president Abraham Lincoln, and Tennessee Congressman Davy Crockett, most European Americans favored the passage of the Indian Removal Act. Then the Principal Chief acted imprudently and made impossible demands on the President. Original source: The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, vol. The treaty established boundaries for Cherokee hunting grounds, erected limitations on culturally significant land. His desire, as interpreted by , was for the Native Americans to intermix with European Americans and to become one people. Georgia 1832 , the U.
The next year, in 1815, and again in 1818, Jackson marched against the Indians in Spanish held Florida, in part to punish them for their practice of harboring fugitive slaves. By the end of the decade, very few natives remained anywhere in the southeastern United States. They were to be removed to reservations in Indian Territory west of the Mississippi now Oklahoma , where their laws could be sovereign without any state interference. The concept of the victor taking the spoils while the conquered suffered the consequences was the viewpoint that was expressed. Control the river traffic and you control the ecoromy.
Food supplied by the government disappeared or arrived in short supply. Congress passed the Indian renewed and amended in 1793, 1796, 1799, 1802, and 1834 to protect and codify the land rights of recognized tribes. At the beginning of the 1830s, nearly 125,000 Native Americanslived on millions of acres of land in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama,North Carolina and Florida-land their ancestors had occupied andcultivated for generations. They would be paid for improvements, removed at government expense, and maintained for two years. You know I love my white and red children, and always speak with a straight, and not with a forked tongue; that I have always told you the truth.
Despite the obscene treatment accorded the Cherokees by the government, the tribe not only survived but endured. From that moment he was convinced that the only alternative to save his people from moral and physical death, was to make the best terms they could with the government and remove out of the limits of the states. And yet, a large portion of your people have acquired little or no property in the soil itself …. Subscribe online and save nearly 40%!!! He left Washington an angry and bitter man. Subscribe online and save nearly 40%!!! Since Indian tribes living there appeared to be the main obstacle to westward expansion, white settlers petitioned the federal government to remove them. Step Three: Read the oral history of Samuel, regarding his memories of the Trail of Tears. Supreme Court, and Chief Justice John Marshall, while avoiding the central issue, ruled that the states could not assert control over the Indian tribes.
As the land became more valuable, the states that included it put pressure on the federal government to make it available to them. The Muskogee nations also controlled most of the waterways in the south. Thisdifficult and sometimes deadly journey is known as the Trail ofTears. Although the majority of the Cherokee and their elected government disavowed this treaty, the United States used it as the basis for forcing the Cherokee to remove to the west in 1838. He was rich, lived in a fine house attended by black slaves, and had influence over the annuities the United States paid to the tribal government for former land cessions. Jackson abandoned the policy of his predecessors of treating different Indian groups as separate nations. The Indians east of the Mississippi were to voluntarily exchange their lands for lands west of the river.
Now the Indian was faced with rejecting the money outright or accepting this paltry sum and thereby losing credibility with his people. Others thought it was more pragmatic to agree to leave in exchange for money and other concessions. In this way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach the Indians, and they will in time either incorporate with us as citizens of the United States, or remove beyond the Mississippi. To start, he insisted that in any treaty the Nation must retain some of their land along the borders of Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia, land that had already been occupied by white settlers. The war would result in over 1,500 U.
In return, Georgia gives up claims on western lands. The last thing Jackson needed was a confrontation with another state, so he quietly nudged Georgia into obeying the court order and freeing Butler and Worcester. In 1828, pressure for Indian removal to the west greatly increased after the Cherokee adopted a constitution and a republican form of government modeled on that of the United States and began publishing a bi-lingual newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix. At every step of their long journey to the Indian Territory the Cherokees were robbed and cheated by contractors, lawyers, agents, speculators, and anyone wielding local police power. He then forces upon the Indians a treaty in which they surrendered over twenty-million acres of their traditional land.
Encyclopedia of American Indian Removal. The goal of this civilization campaign was to make Native Americans as much like white Americans as possible by encouraging them convert to , learn to speak and read English, and adopt European-style economic practices such as the individual ownership of land and other property including, in some instances in the South, African slaves. Why go to California when there's gold at home? There is also evidence that the land was rich in gold, which only increased economic interest in the area. The Franklin Masonic Hall, where the Chickasaw delegation met President Andrew Jackson, still stands and is a National Historic Landmark. You are liable to prosecutions for offenses, and to civil actions for a breach of any of your contracts. The tribes removed from their land were the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, Cherokee and Creek.