It is denoted by double head arrow. Then set the X and Y vector of machine to the zero and operate the machine. The error in stress for a stress of 385. Referring from the resultant graph, we can see that the obtained graph line is straight until the one point it decrease gradually and be rupture. After point U material have very minute or zero strength to face further stress.
By pulling on something, you will very quickly determine how the material will react to forces being applied in tension. Likewise, it is appropriate to use the strain at zero stress plus some error term as the maximum limit for the starting point of the 0. Measuring the diameter of the test piece by vernier caliper at least at three places and determine the mean value also mark the gauge length. After obtaining the readings electronically the values were tabulated into a graph to obtain a tensile testing graph in which the values for Yield. This test can also be used to assess the ductile brittle transition temperature of the material occurring due to lowering of temperature. Then it continues to swing.
In addition to this, also yield stress, tensile strength and percentage elongation and reduction of area will be calculated, only for the standard steel sample. Thus force can be tensile, compressive and shear. It has a maximum load of 2 or 50 kN and a variable pulling rate. This report will explain in detail theory and procedures involved in such test and give all results obtained by group C2 on October 2013. Results Tables Low-carbon steel High-carbon steel Aluminium Dimensions, mm 23.
The rate of loading can be controlled by the software. · What kind of fracture has occurred in the tensile specimen and why? Value of stress correspond to peak point on stress strain curve for mild steel is the ultimate stress. Three fundamental mechanical properties of metals are the elastic modulus E , the yield point σ y , and the ultimate strength σ ult. Explicit formulae are deduced for the measured variables of the test in terms of the phenomenological parameters of the material. The appropriate extensometer was attached for the given specimen and gage length.
The elastic modulus, yield point, and ultimate stress were determined from the stress-strain plot. Though there was a large amount of error in this experiment a lot was learned about torsion testing. The error in the ultimate stress as calculated from Equation at a force level of 9848 N was ± 8. A load cell was used to determine the force required to maintain a constant displacement rate. In addition to this, also yield stress, tensile strength and percentage elongation and reduction of area will be calculated, only for the standard steel sample. We then analyzed the data output from the load and extension gauge. Steel such as this is no longer used very much in reinforced concrete.
Punch marks must be made at 2 inch intervals along each sample. This stress causes a sudden permanent extension. The Instron test machine is a displacement controlled machine. Tensile Specimen Dimensions Figure 1. This worst case scenario will be utilized in this instance.
From the diagram point P is the called the proportional limit point or it can also be known as limit of proportionality. The phenomenology of the tensile test is re-examined with special attention to the influence of strain rate sensitivity of the flow stress. It has a maximum load of 2 or 50 kN and a variable pulling. Results Tables Low-carbon steel High-carbon steel Aluminium Dimensions, mm 23. The Tinius Olson Torsion Machine is interesting piece of equipment.
This lab tested two materials mild steel and cast iron. The tensile tester used in this lab is manufactured by Instron model 5569. Furthermore, the steel sample experienced nearly two times the torque than the cast iron. A material like steel is a very suitable for lots of most movement due to its resilient nature, so it would be perfect to build structures with in an earthquake prone area. Measure the distance between the grips.