Once assembled, the magistrate ordered the ten-or-so suspects to place their hand sickles on the ground in front of them and then step back a few yards. Knocking against things at rest iscalled ko; running up against things in motion is calledchuang. Next, let every single bone be marked carefully with a numberto facilitate their being put together again if required. Those who are fat or young decay easily. The blood-dropping test for kindred. Where a rope of calico or cloth is usedthe scar will be spread over a larger surface. All such should be carefully written down, or marked aswanting.
In all cases where the circumstances are unusuallysuspicious, extra care must be taken to make the fullestinquiries. Whereverthere is the slightest suspicious appearance, the loose skinshould be removed, and if there is a wound, there will be ahole-like appearance beneath it. The mode of procedure isthis: Put up your shed near where the body was burnt, andmake the accused and witnesses point out themselves the exactspot. Corporibus feminarum inspiciendis, vagina maximacura scrutari debet, si forte acus vel aliud quoddam acutum hacvia in vulvam introductus sit. Following the deaths of Joseph Needham and Lu Gwei-Djen, a considerable amount of written material on the development of Chinese medicine awaited publication. If it is a wound it will be hard, andon raising the finger will be found of the same colour as before. Persaepe accidit viduas et virgines juventa prima vulvaemorbo affici; hic post nuptias, harmonia yin et yang confecta,partus forma erumpit, monstrum jam colubri jam alio hujusgeneris simile, et plerumque a vero partu non sine curadistinguendum.
Examine between the shoulders to see if there are any marks ofcauterization, the back generally, ribs, waist, etc. If the red is by itself and purple by itself, of a dull colourand collected into one spot, there being moreover, no halo, thenthe wounds are counterfeit. As, however, the belly andbowels soon decompose, and there is no basis of operations insuch a case, take what decomposed flesh there is in the coffinand wash it out with water. On each side, there are little pointed stems like the upturned angular ends of palace roofs. It will be necessary to elicit clearly whether, if the woundis on the left side, it was inflicted with the right hand, orwhether on the right side, and consequently more roundtowards the back, it was inflicted from behind. If deceaseds feet were off the ground, the scar underthe Adams apple will be deep; otherwise not so deep. According to internationally renowned forensic biologist, Mark Benecke Germany , the study of insects recovered from crime scenes and corpses can be traced back to a 13th-century medico-legal text book entitled Hsi Yuan Lu The Washing Away of Wrongs by Sung Tz'u China , a lawyer and death investigator.
But if the bone hasbeen injured in any way, then the body must be washed andcarefully inspected, and the cause of death ascertained. Males have twelve ribs on either side, eight long andfour short. Si puerqui ita occisus annorum decem est, ejus manus et pedesluctaminis signa ostendent. But to obviate any regrets whichmight be occasioned by a wrong infliction of such punishment,the validity of a confession in order to prevent rich criminalsfrom procuring substitutes and the sentence passed are madeto depend on a satisfactory examination of the wounds. When women give birth, their bones produce blood like a flow of water.
Deceased was killedby a wound on his right side, and you alone ate your rice withyour left hand. Original work published in 1247. In a word, theexamination of a body should be performed speedily andwithout making light of it; the examination of bones should beperformed carefully, and without needlessly breaking them. Examine the chest, breasts, pit of thestomach, belly, ribs, etc. The purpleand red scar will also be deep, though instances occur of depthunaccompanied by the purple and red discolouration. When it is a case of a body the head and trunk of whichare in different places, first make the relatives identify thecorpse, and when you have taken its exact position measurehow far from the head or feet. Iffrom lapse of time decomposition has really taken place, thebody may be reported as unfit to stand the necessary handling.
In a little while, when the body has become soft,remove the coverings, wash off the grains and vinegar andproceed to examine. On the day death takes place,and formal application is made for an inquest, the evidence,etc. Each was to carry their hand sickles to the town square with them. Moreover, deaths from self-strangulation, throat-cutting, taking poison, burning, drowning,and the like, produce very different results, and only the mostminute investigation of every little detail will ensure acomplete and reliable verdict. For a full list of record titles, please use our Record Application Search.
Any scars on the ankle-bones, if both on the inside and outside, may be set down totorture; if on the outside only to a blow. If the latter have been tampered with the cloth or paperwill change colour. Wounds from weapons are long-shaped,either oblique or horizontal; from the fist, round; from a kick,larger than those dealt by the fist. Wounds which injure the bone most are inflicted by shoes withsmooth, round toes, heavily studded with nails. But the sections about the human skeleton, decomposition, and case studies are really interesting because they illustrate the use of forensic anthropology in a medieval context. Clear out the fire and pour in two pints of goodspirit and five pounds of strong vinegar. In extremely hot weather, decomposition begins afterone day, the body assuming a dark, dull, hue, and emitting asmell.
If,however, the murderer struck him in some fleshy vital part andkilled him with one blow, he will have no wound on his hand,but the death-wound will be severe. Where a corpse has been cut to pieces the skin andflesh will not change in appearance, there will be nosubcutaneous stain, the skin will not have shrunk, there will beno blood at the end of the wound, and it will be of a whitecolour. Examine the thighs, knees, shin-bones, ankles, instep, toes andtoenails. If the wound was given on the belly, itwill be necessary to give the length, breadth, and depth of thewound. Forinstance, that such and such bones are all complete, and so on. The skull of a male, from the nape of the neck to the topof the head, consists of eight pieces, of a Tsai-chow man, nine. Though the skin should be broken, the wounds will not bedeep.
Eventually, someone, in reading over the case records, noted that in the depositions of relatives turned in the original investigating official, one relative had state this his younger brother had been pigeon breasted and undersized. If the hair is in disorder, the wound irregular,with no distinction between its depth at one end and the other,the case is one of murder. Shoeswith sharp-pointed toes will cut into the bone, and nailed shoeswill inflict a still heavier wound, discolouring the bone. They offer a broad and readable account of medicine in culture, including hygiene and preventive medicine, forensic medicine and immunology, and the examinations taken by some Chinese physicians for more than a thousand years. He had been there a long time. This is the most important principle ofall. If it has not been secured, ask plaintiffwhere it is and make him draw it and sign his name below thedrawing.
The bodies of fat people swell and the skinseparates from the flesh, which does not take place with thebodies of thin people or those who have been long ill, till morethan half a month has elapsed In the summer months, first the face and then the fleshon the belly, ribs, and chest changes colour in one or two days. In three or four days the flesh becomes rotten, maggotsappear, a dark fluid issues from the mouth and nose, and thehair gradually falls off. If you notice a mistake or have additional information about this object, please email. Only on the discovery of a mortal wound can you insiston the relatives of deceased and the accused being present atthe proceedings. When it is extremely hot, decomposition of the corpse begins even after a single day. The above method is, however, not the only one.