It depends on what you mean by 'science'. Hence sociology is not a science. Such cases do occur, but in the majority of cases of action important to history or sociology the motives which determine it are qualitatively heterogeneous. But before forming any opinion or subscribing to any particular view we must know what is a science? Social sciences are disciplines that are concerned with and built upon social life and many aspects of it. This contention is based on the premise that a fact like electricity is objective, but a family bond is subjective. Certainly sociology is mathematical with its chief tool being regression analysis. That all said, I do think it's fair to say sociology is a science.
By using statistical data, positivists believe it is possible to classify the social world in an objective way. Therefore, social sciences often have to rely heavily on additional experimental designs beyond the classic methods. Third, the actors in any given situation are often subject to opposing and conflicting impulses, all of which we are able to understand. With a lower degree of certainty, which is, however, adequate for most purposes of explanation, we are able to understand errors, including confusion of problems of the sort that we ourselves are liable to, or the origin of which we can detect by sympathetic self-analysis. Indeed, society has ceased to be simple; it has become bafflingly complex.
The recognition of the causal significance of such factors would naturally not in the least alter the specific task of sociological analysis or of that of the other sciences of action, which is the interpretation of action in terms of its subjective meaning. For this there must be some degree of determinable frequency of approximation to an average or a pure type. Similarly, in analysing a political or military campaign it is convenient to determine in the first place what would have been a rational course, given the ends of the participants and adequate knowledge of all the circumstances. Here, too, an ideal-typical construction of rational action is actually employed even though it is not made explicit. Social relationships- any interaction with someone 7. This is above all true where the ideas concern a recognised positive or negative normative pattern.
With the help of all methods sociology studies abstract as well as concrete facts. Both deductive and inductive reasoning are part of a scientific approach. When a company studies the traffic pattern of an intersection to determine if a traffic light is needed on that intersection, it is potentially saving lives. The case is similar to a physical reaction which has been calculated on the assumption of an absolute vacuum. Both because of its precision and because it is established in general usage the juristic concept is taken over, but is used in an entirely different meaning. This involves a departure from ordinary usage, which speaks of intention in this sense only in the case of rationally purposive action. I have other critiques but will reserve them for a later date.
Meaningfulness naturally does not coincide with laws as such, and the more general the law the less the coincidence. In the olden days, that's pretty much all sociology could do, because the computations involved in most statistics are so complicated that you just can't do them by hand. But the subjective understanding of action takes the same account of this type of fact and uniformity as of any others not capable of subjective interpretation. For example take the case of divorce. As a branch of knowledge and study, s … ociology lacks the precision of the natural sciences. The theoretical concepts of sociology are ideal-types not only from the objective point of view, but also in their application to subjective processes. For example we to find out what are causes of corruption? Therefore Comte believed that sociology should apply the same strict scientific methods to the study of society that physics or chemistry use to study the physical world.
Nature of Sociology as a Science- It is common tendency ,whenever we use the word science ,its automatic meaning is with Biology, physics and chemistry. It tries to discover laws that generally applicable in all the societies, irrespective of actual differences. Science covers the broad field of knowledge that deals with observed facts and the relationships among those facts. Both the actor and the sociologist must accept them as data to be taken into account. Thus1 science tries to arrive at law like explanatory generalizations. Sociology can establish relationships between population and war, between criminality and nebulization, etc.
Understandable and non-understandable components of a process are often intermingled and bound up together. Sociology emphasizes group relationships and total social environment. Though extremely pedantic and cumbersome it would be possible, if purposes of sociological terminology alone were involved, to eliminate such terms entirely, and substitute newly-coined words. Comte believed it was possible to have a good handle on the prediction of further trends and patterns within society. This evidence could only be found by the gathering and analysis of data. In this field it goes without saying that a purely functional point of view is often the best that can, at least for the present, be attained, and the investigator must be content with it.
But the very fact, that the world is not a bedlam or a total chaos, is a sufficient proof that sociology has the opportunity to play the role of science. Seventhly, the argument that unlike other sciences, sociology lacks in the law of causality, is again a fallacious contention. They are ideas or constructs, not things. Same way consequences are equally important. Closed systems: the researcher can control and measure the relevant variables and therefore, can make precise predictions of the sort Karl Popper advocates, The typical research method for this is laboratory experiments. Manifest function- if an action is intended to help Latent function- they have unintended consequences that help a system adjust birth of baby causes rise in diaper and furniture sales Latent dysfunction- actions that can hurt a system people have more children to receive more bonuses 1.