Some suggest that it was still flourishing after the efforts of the Council of Trent 1545-63 to reform and revitalise the Church, as witnessed by its well-educated clergy, numerous and varied religious orders, and renewed forms of worship. As Britons were encouraged to form armed associations to defend against a possible French invasion, anyone suspected of harbouring disloyalty to the British king and constitution faced the threat of physical force. There was an immediate reactionary backlash, resulting in the appointment of a new right-wing ministry which immediately began undoing the work of its predecessors. Unexpectedly, the new owners of , numbering around one million, were major beneficiaries as their property was guaranteed by the new law and that led to a rise in the value of their land. Artz, France under the Bourbon Restoration, 1814-1830 1931 pp 99-171.
Villèle suffered worse treatment, as liberal officers led troops to protest at his office. Different poltical groups affected each type of government. Workers had no vote and were not listened to. However, these liberalizations allowed the French people to legally voice their political grievances, leading to mass demonstrations against the empire. It almost did, edspecially after 1792 when the wars began. It would take more than a century for democracy in France to find its rightful place and it would only be as late as the 1950s, with President de Gaulle's creation of the 5th Republic, that stability would at last be achieved. In response, the rural peasantry throughout France lobbied for the relaxation of protective on grain to lower prices and ease their economic situation.
Following the ousting of the last king to rule France during the , the was formed with the election of as President 1848—1852. It brought new ideas to Europe including liberty and freedom for the commoner as well as the abolishment of slavery and the rights of women. What Life Was like During the Age of Reason. Though Charles remained nonchalant, the deadlock led some royalists to call for a coup, and prominent liberals for a tax strike. Unfortunately, the French chose the most violent way imaginable, and murdered everybody that stood in the way or even dared to think differently of the revolution.
Charles attempted to remedy that situation by increasing the number of members of the Upper Chamber and by disbanding the Lower House but the opposition was returned in greater numbers at the following elections. The consequences of this drastic experiment in the transformation of church-state relations would reverberate in France until the 1905 separation of church and state and are still felt today as states continue to negotiate the sensitive relationship between church, state and religious belief. Economically: In this respect there was change on several levels. During his reign, Bonaparte continued the liberalization that had begun during the Revolution, reforming its civil code, establishing the first national bank, expanding public education, and investing heavily in infrastructures like roads and sewers. Its adherents were also a danger to the stability of the King's position because they rejected the Charter as being too conservative. At the time, the prison was only being guarded by a few guards who were incapable of controlling the quickly growing crowd. Indeed, financial reforms were so successful that France was able to pay off a rather large war indemnity within only three years of Waterloo.
Their newspapers were , and. Many people accused the royals, especiallyQueen Marie- Antoinette of spending too much money onluxuries. The huge economic gap between peasants and the elite is one of the primary reasons why the revolution began. In retaliation, Napoleon had the pope arrested and later taken to France as his prisoner where he remained until 1814. His more reactionary laws included the 1825—1830. The higher learning flourished at the Sorbonne. Beginning in September 1793, thousands of French citizens, many from the middle and upper classes, were arrested, tried, and executed during a wave of violent repression aimed at the Jacobins' opponents, called the Reign of Terror.
When Napoleon was again defeated by the , they returned to power in July. The revival was by no means confined to an intellectual elite, however, but was evident in the real, if uneven, rechristianisation of the French countryside. The Revolution literally threw off the monarchy and embraced the notion of a Republic. The remaining nobles were considered part of the nobility of the robe, indicating that they were nobles solely because the King made them so. It paid a large war indemnity to the winners, but managed to finance that without distress; the occupation soldiers left peacefully. The Revolutionary calendar started with the advent of the French Republic Year 1. In the lead-up to the May 5 meeting, the Third Estate began to mobilize support for equal representation and the abolishment of the noble veto — in other words, they wanted voting by head and not by status.
Concern peaked on 2 September when news arrived that the fortress-town of Verdun near Paris had fallen to the allied Prussian forces. The French Catholic Church, known as the Gallican Church, recognised the authority of the pope as head of the Roman Catholic Church but had negotiated certain liberties that privileged the authority of the French monarch, giving it a distinct national identity characterised by considerable autonomy. In response, the Guard was disbanded. Aussiecliff i am not sure so this might not be right sorry! However, foreign policy did not prove sufficient to divert attention from domestic problems. At the they were treated respectfully, but had to give up nearly all the territorial gains made since 1789. Being French effectively meant being Catholic.
This indicated that my ancestors were part of the French nobility since the time of the middle ages. A proposal was immediately made to halt the taking of solemn vows. The meeting was scheduled for May 5, 1789; in the meantime, delegates of the three estates from each locality would compile lists of grievances cahiers de doléances to present to the king. The revolution not only diminished our authority in society, but erased all senses of nobility altogether. It not only asserted the natural birthrights of all men, but controversially advocated republicanism and a system of social welfare in the second volume, published in 1792.
He built a spectacular palace Sans Souci as well as an imposing fortress La Citadelle Laferrière in the hills to the south of the city of , where, with mutinous soldiers almost at his door, he committed suicide in 1820. The law was unenforceable and only enacted for symbolic purposes, though the act's passing caused a considerable uproar, particularly among the. The revolution was virtually bloodless and almost totally confined to the municipal boundaries of Paris. It was not until 1844 that the Haitians were expelled by a popular uprising. Figures varied considerably between regions, but over 50 per cent of parish clergy swore their loyalty to the Constitution. Bonaparte, who led a string of military victories for the French Army during the First Republic, became the head of the French government as consul for life in 1802, and then emperor two years later.
No state in Europe had experienced democracy and the French National Assembly was dabbling therefore in something which neither the rulers nor the people fully appreciated. About 70,000 government officials were dismissed. In the French case, therefore, democracy appeared to be a concept remarkably difficult to apply in reality. In 1789, the year of the outbreak of the French Revolution, Catholicism was the official religion of the French state. But France's conquests themselves paid dividends in hard currency, as well as many of Europes greatest art treasures. Economically: In this respect there was change on several levels. Catholicism had been squeezed out of the Republic, but alternatives imposed from above failed to catch on.