Then concede share edge of beam and y-line. The head loss depends on the wall shear stress, τ in between the fluid and pipe surface. Experiment 1: Fluid Friction in Smooth Bore Pipes 1. Turn on the flow pump and make sure there are no significant leaks through any of the connections some dripping is okay. Since the diameter is same for all parts the velocity and discharge is same.
The graph shows as the volume flow rate increases the head loss increases, and the variation is more in experimental results compared to theoretical result. Measure flow rates using the volumetric tank. The shift from laminar flow to turbulent flow is seen from the results recorded, but it is observed more clearly from the water-soluble dye experiment that was carried out by the demonstrator. A remote sight gauge, consisting of a sight tube and scale, is connected to a tapping in the base of the tank and gives an instantaneous indication of water level. To demonstrate the flow over different weir types.
Changes in pressure drop due to the change in flowrate are then observed from the three pressure gauges that can measure pressure at different range and recorded. Based on the discharge value and diameter at each location calculate velocity. To do this, we used the parallel-plate flow chamber device. It increases steadily shows the existence of laminar flow then follow by random curves which represents transitional flow for both graphs. Friction losses during the flow of fluid in the pipe are due to the friction forces present between the fluid particles and between the pipe wall and fluid particles.
The region where the velocity changes like reducer and enlarger the kinetic head change appears. The model is based on the numerical solution of conservation equations of mass and… 1398 Words 6 Pages challenges to effective communication. How might the lab be improved? The flow rates are measured using the volumetric cylinder in conjunction with flow control. The sample calculations are inserted in Part F under result section to ease readers out in terms of calculations and understanding. If bubbles are visible in the manometer tubes, gently tap the tubes near the bubbles to try to move the bubbles out the tops of the tubes.
Experiment 1 Fluid Flow In A Smooth Pipe Abstract In this experiment, three variable flow meters are used to alter the flowrate. The pump can be switched on and off using the switch indicated in the diagram shown in the equipment section of this web site. A linear transducer response is assumed, and is quite accurate. The devices used in this experiment were a fan, closed-channel venturi-shape pipe, a Pitot tube, circular cylinder with holes of different angles, U-tube manometers and a barometer. Results Volume mL Time s h 1 115 19. It will then flow through whichever of the test pipes is selected, back through the acrylic pipe section and into the volumetric tank in the hydraulics bench.
Drilling fluid plays essential role in drilling process. It is easy to define, but not easy to understand on a fundamental level. In parallel operation the two pumps draw from a shared inlet pipe of a wider diameter than the pump inlet, reflecting a typical industrial configuration of parallel pumping. The force is larger than rolling, sliding, and fluid friction. Objectives To determine the relationship between head loss due to fluid fraction and velocity for flow of water through smooth bore pipe. If the manual reading and the flow meter reading are close, you can trust the flow meter from now on, and there is no need to measure the flow rate manually anymore. Amontons presented the nature of friction in terms of surface irregularities and the force required to raise the weight pressing the surfaces together.
To compare the Reynolds Number and Darcy Friction coefficient 2. For example, a reading of 158 on the display unit corresponds to an analog voltage output of 1. These objectives were met by heating several rods and allowing them to cool through free convection in air, free. Prepare a table of all the experimental results for each pipe section. The bench flow control valve, V1 is fully closed then the pump is switched on. The graph is plotted based on the pressure loss with location showing that the pressure loss is increases with location and depend upon the minor loss of head the pressure drop increases with location.
It is assumed that the dynamic viscosity μ is 1. Then drain the manometer tubes into a bucket using the quick disconnects at the bottoms of the manometer tubes. Air bubbles in any of the pressure lines will lead to gross errors in your data. The friction factor graph shown below describes the variation of friction factor with respect to Reynolds number. As discussed above, this calibrates the transducer to 48. Carefully undo one of the nuts holding the tubing to the pressure meter until liquid is expelled from the joint.
Two motor driven centrifugal pumps, mounted on a stainless steel plinth with a water reservoir and pipe work for continuous circulation. Repeat the same procedure and increase the load by 50g each time. Bleed the flow system of all air bubbles, restart the program PipeFlow Measure, and repeat Step 8 for the new test specimen. With this unit from Armfield, friction head losses in straight pipes of different diameters can be investigated over a range of Reynolds' numbers from 10 3 to nearly 10 5, thereby covering the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes in smooth pipes. Friction Loss Along Pipe Essay Sample Abstract This experiment of the friction loss along a smooth pipe shows that there are existence of laminar and transitional flows as stated in Graph 2.
When the vent valve is closed, the differential pressure is measured with the vent valve. Each pressure tapping is fitted with a quick connection facility. This would increase the accuracy and decrease the discrepancy of results. The volumetric measuring tank is stepped to accommodate low or high flow rates. The flow is pumped from the water tank as shown, and makes a 180o turn so that the flow exits back into the water tank. Aquifer, Buoyancy, Density 1603 Words 6 Pages following terms: a. Throughout the process, measurements of the quantity of water and time were taken as well as the hydraulic gradient… 2625 Words 11 Pages the friction loss along a smooth pipe shows that there are existence of laminar and transitional flows as stated in Graph 2.